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Web Usability or Accessibility: Comparisons between people with and without intellectual disabilities in viewing complex naturalistic scenes using eye-tracking technology

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dc.contributor.author Bazar, Nancy Sceery
dc.creator Bazar, Nancy Sceery
dc.date 2009-04-13
dc.date.accessioned 2009-07-02T19:18:45Z
dc.date.available NO_RESTRICTION en
dc.date.available 2009-07-02T19:18:45Z
dc.date.issued 2009-07-02T19:18:45Z
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/1920/4559
dc.description.abstract The purpose of this primarily quantitative study was to compare how young adults with and without intellectual disabilities examine different types of images. Two experiments were conducted. The first, a replication and extension of a classic eyetracking study (Yarbus, 1967), generated eye gaze patterns and data in response to questions related to the famous painting, The Unexpected Visitor. Both groups exhibited goal-directed behavior based on the judgment of eight independent raters, an extension to the original study, but there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups, based on the judgment of two cooperating raters. Raters could not differentiate between the scan paths of the young adults with and without intellectual disabilities. Yarbus’ study was also extended by the inclusion of an interview with the participants. There was a statistically significant difference in the word count and recollection of major elements from The Unexpected Visitor between the groups. The second experiment used eye-tracking technology and a current saliency model that predicted salient points in images (Walther & Koch, 2006) under two sets of saliency features. Participants rapidly viewed 30 images of Web sites and other natural scenes from three different sources. This study found no statistically significant differences between people with and without intellectual disabilities for teacher created pictures from a fourth grade geomorphology course and award winning Web sites, leading to a strong recommendation of a usability rather than accessibility for people with intellectual disabilities. Finally, the relative merits of two methods of saliency prediction were compared. The more recently developed Walther model (Walther & Koch) proved to produce similar results as the computationally intensive Itti model (Itti, Koch, & Niebur, 1998), under the conditions of this experiment. This suggests that researchers may use the simpler model in the future to compare groups.
dc.language.iso en
dc.subject Disabilities en_US
dc.subject eye – tracking en_US
dc.subject saliency en_US
dc.subject Web accessibility en_US
dc.subject Section 508 en_US
dc.subject Yarbus en_US
dc.title Web Usability or Accessibility: Comparisons between people with and without intellectual disabilities in viewing complex naturalistic scenes using eye-tracking technology
dc.type Dissertation
thesis.degree.name Doctor of Philosophy in Education en
thesis.degree.level Doctoral
thesis.degree.discipline Education
thesis.degree.grantor George Mason University


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