Maize, Mobility, and Migration: Variation in Long Bone Functional Adaptation in the Pre- and Proto-Historic American Southwest



Rogers, Jacklyn

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This study evaluates changes in behavior that occurred within indigenous populations from the American Southwest during agricultural intensification and European colonization. Long bone diaphyses from Pueblo Bonito (A.D. 800-1200) a pre-contact Pueblo II site, and Hawikku (A.D. 1400-1680), a protohistoric Pueblo IV site were included in this work. Computed tomographic images and MomentMacro software were used to measure areas and second moments of area for adult humeri, radii, femora, and tibiae. All measurements were standardized for body size using body mass and powers of bone length. Standardized areas and second moments of area were compared between males and females from Pueblo Bonito and Hawikku using MANOVA with a Games-Howell post-hoc test. Significant differences were found in female humeral TA (p ≤ 0.000), CA (p ≤ 0.001), Ix (p ≤ 0.002), Iy (p ≤ 0.000), and J (p ≤ 0.000). Few differences were found in male humeral properties (MA) (p ≤ 0.001), female femoral properties (TA) (p ≤ 0.002), and female tibial properties (Ix/Iy) (p ≤ 0.000). These results suggest little change in mobility in accordance with the agricultural transition and European colonialism in this region. However, results do suggest changes in female upper limb activity towards more intensive patterns of labor in a colonial setting, contributing to the growing narrative of the important role of female labor in prehistoric societies as well as how females might have been affected directly and indirectly by colonialism.



Bioarchaeology, Colonialism, Bone functional adaptation, Southwest, Cross-sectional geometry