Methods of Seizure Detection: A Literature Review




Ibrahim, Lamis

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title



epileptic seizure is a neurological disorder caused by abnormal activity of nerve cells in the brain. Epileptic seizures may happen while the patient is awake or asleep, and may cause loss of consciousness, falling, or massive muscle spasms. Frequent seizure events are dangerous as they can cause extreme injury and even death. Since the period of most seizures is less than two minutes, it is impossible to directly monitor all patients at risk of seizure. Devices have been developed such as electroencephalogram (EEG), and mattress pressure sensors to detect seizures and alert caregivers. Despite all the benefits of these systems, these systems cannot accurately detect seizures. EEG and ECG are impractical and not suitable for long-term seizure detection and mattress pressure sensors do not allow for accurate detection in all patients as a weight threshold must be reached for the sensors to detect movement. To address this, researchers have developed wearable devices that combine ECG and Photoplethysmography (PPG) to monitor and detect seizure events [1]. PPG is an optical technique that uses a light source and a photodetector at the surface of the skin to measure the volumetric changes in blood circulation which allows for the detection of heart rate [2]. PPG is also being combined with wearable devices and video to allow for an innovative seizure detection system. In this literature review, traditional methods of seizure detection such as EEG, mattress pressure sensors, video-based detection, and integrating PPG with wearable devices to detect seizures will be discussed and compared to understand and further appreciate seizure detection systems.