Oxidized Extracellular DNA as a Stress Signal in Human Cells




Ermakov, Aleksei V.
Konkova, Marina S.
Kostyuk, Svetlana V.
Izevskaya, Vera L.
Baranova, Ancha
Veiko, Natalya N.

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Hindawi Publishing Corporation


The term “cell-free DNA” (cfDNA) was recently coined for DNA fragments from plasma/serum, while DNA present in in vitro cell culture media is known as extracellular DNA (ecDNA). Under oxidative stress conditions, the levels of oxidative modification of cellular DNA and the rate of cell death increase. Dying cells release their damaged DNA, thus, contributing oxidized DNA fragments to the pool of cfDNA/ecDNA. Oxidized cell-free DNA could serve as a stress signal that promotes irradiation-induced bystander effect. Evidence points to TLR9 as a possible candidate for oxidized DNA sensor. An exposure to oxidized ecDNA stimulates a synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that evokes an adaptive response that includes transposition of the homologous loci within the nucleus, polymerization and the formation of the stress fibers of the actin, as well as activation of the ribosomal gene expression, and nuclear translocation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (NRF2) that, in turn, mediates induction of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, the oxidized DNA is a stress signal released in response to oxidative stress in the cultured cells and, possibly, in the human body; in particular, it might contribute to systemic abscopal effects of localized irradiation treatments.



Adaptive responses, Bystander effect, DNA double-strand breaks, Extracellular DNA, Oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen species, Human umbilical vein endothelial cells, Mesenchymal stem cells.


Aleksei V. Ermakov, Marina S. Konkova, Svetlana V. Kostyuk, Vera L. Izevskaya, Ancha Baranova, and Natalya N. Veiko, “Oxidized Extracellular DNA as a Stress Signal in Human Cells,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2013, Article ID 649747, 12 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/649747